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History of Science and Engineering

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HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES IN RUSSIA
A.I. Nudel

The article discusses the process of origin and development in Russia of various types of the chemical laboratories – departmental, public and private, the laboratories of educational and industrial institutions, scientific societies and museums. The first Russian scientific laboratory created by M.V. Lomonosov set an example for the organization of the other domestic research laboratories. Almost always, laboratories existed in conditions of limited funding, lack of space and equipment. The development of natural science in the second half of the 19th century led to an improvement in the natural sciences at universities. The methodology of their teaching has changed, laboratory workshops have been introduced into the educational process. Laboratories are updated and modernized; however, the issue of financing research and high-quality laboratory equipment remains relevant. Much attention is paid to the state of the material base of research chemical laboratories, its impact on the quality of experimental work. With the development of chemistry as a science, laboratory technology is being improved. In the second half of the 19th century, many scientific instruments were modified; Scientists and engineers are developing new research tools. The range of tasks solved in laboratories is expanding. The growing specialization of scientific chemical laboratories by the end of the 19th century lays the prerequisites for their institutionalization and transformation into independent scientific institutions.
Keywords: chemical laboratory, laboratory equipment, scientific instruments, Universities, Museums.


DOI: 10.25791/intstg.11.2019.1020

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Pp. 03-16.

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