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History of Science and Engineering

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CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEMS FOR MACHINES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE COMPLEX MECHANIZATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CROP PRODUCTION
Ya.P. Lobachevskiy, Yu.S. Tsench, V.M. Beylis

In order to better understand the machine-technological processes in agriculture, as well as on the basis of them, we are planning the prospects for the development of the System of Technologies and Machines. The article analyzes all Systems of Machines and their impact on the development of agricultural production. We have determined the close connection of machine systems with industrial manufacturing of machinery. It was found that achievements of domestic and foreign science and technology taking into account natural and economic conditions of zones were the basis for development of the first System of Machines. At the same time,it was considered saving of labour and funds for production of agricultural products. The second System of Machines have developed positions of the first. There were technologies that allowed improvement in justification of different means for mechanization. The third System of Machines differed in existence of the technological complexes and zones of mechanization tied to the economic region. Brands or the short names of the new machines, which do not have the brand, are provided in the fourth System of Machines unlike the third System of Machines. The fifth, sixth and seventh systems were developed already for the 10-year period. In them were put plans of implementation of technological complexes during action of Systems of Machines that attached them economic significance even more. The System of Machines for 1996–2005 developed in 1995 was intended for implementation of a system of technologies and technological adapters in relation to variety of specific agricultural landscapes and working conditions of Russia. The latest System of Technologies and Machines was developed in 2012. It more fully reflected not only new technologies and tools for their implementation, but also determined their efficiency. We have concluded that the basis for the development of the System of Machines and its development program is the analysis and synthesis of the whole set of data on the design, creation and production of agricultural machinery in Russia and CIS countries, first of all, the program of agricultural machinery, data on the state and trends of agricultural mechanization abroad. (Conclusions) We have identified the need to use modern methods of digitalization when making decisions on specific technical means and forming them into the system, as well as evaluation of efficiency of technological complexes of machines using computer technologies and many other data, accumulated by researchers in the course of complex solution of the problem of agricultural mechanization during the multi-year period of development of machine systems from 1955 to 1990 and from 2010 to 2012, as a result of which a modern technical base of agriculture was formed.
Keywords: System of machines; machine technologies; digitalization; technological complex; technological maps; efficiency of the system of machines.


DOI: 10.25791/intstg.12.2019.1081

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Pp. 46-55.

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