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History of Science and Engineering

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EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRIC CIRCUITS LAW
A.F. Smyk, L.V. Spiridonova

The article examines the history of the establishment of the law of electrical circuits, which was called Ohm’s law. Georg Ohm in 1826 published a number of very important experiments, which he showed that it is possible to represent in simple terms the resistance exerted to the passage of electricity by wires of various lengths, diameters and materials. He showed that there is something measurable that could be called resistance. The experimental base of the experiments conducted by Ohm, the existing methods of measuring the current strength, the Coulomb torsion scales improved by Ohm, and the rationale for using a thermoelectric element as a current source are described. The application of the analogy method by G. Ohm to search for the theoretical dependence of the current strength on voltage and resistance for a homogeneous section of the circuit is considered. Om drew an analogy between the occurrence of heat flow in the body and the occurrence of an electric current in the circuit. In the Fourier theory of thermal conductivity, the presence of a thermal current between two bodies is explained differently.
Keywords: history of physics, Georg Ohm, Ohm’s law, electric current, Schweiger multiplier.


DOI: 10.25791/intstg.9.2022.1374

Pp. 03-13.

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