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History of Science and Engineering

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CREATION OF EDUCATIONAL AND AUXILIARY INSTITUTIONS OF BIOLOGICAL PROFILE AT THE PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENTS OF UNIVERSITIES OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
E.Yu. Zharova

The article considers the development of educational and auxiliary institutions of a biological profile on the natural departments of the physics and mathematics faculties of the Universities of the Russian Empire, from the opening of universities in the beginning of the XIX century and the adoption of statutes of 1803–1804. The author describes the founding of university botanical gardens, natural cabinets, their division into botanical and zoological cabinets, division of botanical cabinets into the cabinets of taxonomy and morphology and anatomy and physiology of plants, as well as the separation of comparative anatomy from the zoological cabinets. The author also mentions the physiological and histological cabinets. Thanks to the data given in the article, it becomes clear that the progressive movement from a comprehensive natural history to the differentiated branches of biology was observed in all Universities, while the speed of introduction of scientific achievements was different, the most rapidly reacting metropolitan universities that had more opportunities. The laboratory stage of cabinet development began in some Universities in the 1840s, however, the number of optical instruments was insignificant, therefore we can speak of laboratories as such only with reference to the 1870s.
Keywords: natural departments; the Russian Empire; Universities; botanical gardens; botanical cabinets; zoological cabinets; laboratories.


DOI: 10.25791/intstg.12.2018.288

Contacts: E-mail: zharova_ekaterina@bk.ru

Pp. 31-49.

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