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History of Science and Engineering

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPAIR AND OPERATION OF THE MACHINE AND TRACTOR FLEET
V.I. Chernoivanov

The article presents the main stages of the development of GOSNITI, which was formed by the decision of the then government in 1953. It is indicated that the main task of the newly created institute should be the scientific justification, improvement and development of the technical service of machines, the creation of repair and technical equipment, regulatory and technical documentation. The basis for the creation of the State Union Scientific and Research Technological Institute for the Repair of Tractors and Agricultural Machines (GOSNITI) was the laboratory for the repair and operation of tractors and automobiles of VIM and the Perovsky Mechanical Plant, which became an experimental plant. The first director of GOSNITI was the future academician VASKHNIL A.I. Selivanov, who is the founder of the theory of aging machines. The first results of the institute created in the first two years are presented. The results of the activities of the directors S.A. Melnik, A.P. Bakhareva, N.F. Andreeva. A special place in the article is given to the activities of the institute during the work of S. Cherepanov, who headed the institute for almost 30 years. Academician V.I. headed the Institute for more than 20 years. Chernoivanov. In the period from 1992 to 2013, the Institute successfully coped with market transformations. The staff of the GOSNITI Institute was preserved. A new concept was developed for the effective use of agricultural machinery in market conditions, a concept for repairing machinery with 100% resource was developed. Much attention is paid to the results of scientists in the field of restoration and hardening of parts. It is indicated that in 1979 on the basis of GOSNITI the All-Union Scientific and Production Association for the restoration of worn parts was created. VNPO Remdetal worked independently for 24 years, and in 2003 it again became part of the GOSNITI structure. The main results on the development of equipment and technology for the restoration of parts are presented. It is indicated that three awards of the USSR Council of Ministers were received for the development of the institute. A summary of new technologies for the restoration of parts using a laser, electrospark, plasma technologies is given. Examples are given of creating flow-mechanized lines, means of automation and robotization of processes.
Keywords: Repair, technical service, resource, diagnostics, restoration of parts, hardening of parts, agricultural machinery.


DOI: 10.25791/intstg.12.2019.1077

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Pp. 11-19.

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