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History of Science and Engineering

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SOCIAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL MODERNIZATION OF THE CHUKCHI REINDEER BREEDING IN THE SOVIET PERIOD
L.N. Khakhovskaya

The author discusses the social and economic aspects of the soviet modernization of reindeer breeding in Chukotka. The unevenness of the modernization in these spheres is shown. External influence has become the main cause of such lopsided development. In the first half of the twentieth century the authorities first sought to reform the archaic social structure of the reindeer Chukchi. In the Late Soviet period, social modernization of reindeer breeding was also ahead of the technological one. The Soviet administration was unable to carry out technological upgrading of reindeer breeding as a sphere of environmental management. The use of reindeer dogs during grazing had a certain effect. The use of mechanized equipment in the tundra did not lead to the grazing restructuring. The technique only facilitated the process of moving from one site to another. Significant improvement of the established technology of grazing in the Soviet period did not happen. Ultimately, the Chukchi reindeer breeding remained on foot, extensive and extremely time consuming.
Keywords: reindeer breeding, Chukotka, Soviet power, modernization, kolkhoz, indigenous population.


DOI: 10.25791/intstg.01.2020.1126

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Pp. 28-36.

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