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History of Science and Engineering

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LABORATORY OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISMS, IBPM RAS, ITS LONG STANDING EXPERIENCE AND TRENDS IN NEW RESEARCH
M.B. Vainshtein, Ya.A. Delegan, I.G. Minkevich

Laboratory of Physiology of Microorganisms was established in 1967. The laboratory obtained important results in development of the theory on the material-energetic balance of microbial growth on various substrates, developed a new continuous cultivation method – bistat, identified zones of double growth limitation by substrate concentrations and developed other important approaches for the cultivation of microorganisms. In the laboratory, investigations were carried out to search for producers and increase their production of valuable compounds, including arachidonic acid. Practical physiological / biotechnological scientific work was accompanied with study of the base of processes associated with material and energy metabolism. Methodology and analytical program have been created to identify some possible ways of bioconversion of compounds that consider the target and related products. This analytical program allows formation of biotechnological processes based on possible metabolic pathways. The laboratory work is related also to detoxifi cation: destruction of ethylenediaminetetraacetate and its complexes with heavy metals, and neutralization of toxic / heavy metals by their precipitation. The possibility of using moderately acidophilic bacteria to leach valuable metals without added acid, as well as the stimulation of autotrophic thionic bacteria by formate are shown. In the last 5 years, the principles of the separation of metabolism into partial exchanges substantiated, the concept of nodal metabolites located at the boundary of the front and standard constructive exchanges has been introduced. The method has been developed for theoretical prediction of the maximum yield of biomass from various substrates during aerobic growth and anaerobic fermentation. The preparation of thermotolerant actinobacteria for the destruction of oil pollution in an arid climate was developed, the physiological and biochemical properties of the Gordonia and Dietzia strains were studied, and the complete sequence of the Rhodococcus erythropolis genome was obtained. There was recommended additive to concrete, inhibiting the corrosive activity of thionic bacteria. The individual representatives of the Fetransforming bacteria and, as well, the effect of combined magnetic fields on them and other bacteria have been studied.
Keywords: IBPM RAS, Physiology of microorganisms, Microbiology, Biotechnology, FRC PSCBR RAS.


DOI: 10.25791/intstg.06.2020.1191

Pp. 51-58.

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