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History of Science and Engineering

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THE MANGANESE INDUSTRY OF GEORGIA: THE HISTORY OF ITS ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT (THE LAST THIRD OF THE XIX – THE FIRST DECADE OF THE XX CENTURIES)
A.M. Ismailova

The article is devoted to one of the developed branches of the mining industry of Georgia – the manganese industry, which was located in the town of Chiatur of the Shorapan district of the Kutaisi province. The article analyzes the dynamics of ore production and export, the network and volume of mining operations for individual uplands of the deposit, the dynamics of the labor force, the level of labor productivity, the technique of extraction, delivery, rolling back, transportation and enrichment of ore, the differentiation of industrialists. Based on historical sources and previously unpublished archival materials identified by the author, the following issues are also considered: the invasion of large foreign capital into the manganese industry, the creation of partnerships of local industrialists, the establishment of the congress of manganese industrialists of Shorapan county. The article concluded that the manganese industry of Georgia in the period under study was one of the most developed and profitable branches of the mining industry not only in the Russian Empire, but also on a global scale.
Keywords: South Caucasus, Georgia, Kutaisi province, Shorapan county, manganese industry, Chiatura mines, ore, commercial bourgeoisie, tunnels, trolleys, bromsbergs, gutters.


DOI: 10.25791/intstg.10.2021.1318

Pp. 18-23.

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